From Babur to Aurangzeb: Important Facts

by Mr. DJ

From Babur to Aurangzeb: Important Facts

The first six Mughal emperors of the Mughal dynasty – Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb — changed the face of India with their political and intellectual prowess. Here are the main facts on the six major Mughal emperors in Indian history.

Mughal empire, mughal emperors, facts, mughals, Babur, humayun, akbar, Jahangir, shah jahan, aurangzeb

The first six Mughal emperors of the Mughal dynasty – Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb — changed the face of India with their political and intellectual prowess.

At a certain period in history from the middle of the 1500s to the beginning of the 1700s, the Mughal Empire controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent. It stretched from the edges of the Indus river basin, northern Afghanistan and Kashmir in the north west to the now-Assam and Bangladesh highlands in the east, and down to the uplands of Deccan plateau in the south.

This growth harnessing immense power and money was thanks to the first six Mughal emperors of the dynasty Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb.

The Great Mughals, as they are sometimes called, changed the face of India with their political, military and artistic achievements.


Here are a few basic facts on the first six Mughal emperors:


1. Babur (AD 1526-1530)


First Mughal emperor Babur


  • The very first Mughal emperor and the founder of the Mughal emperor Babur brought gunpowder to India
  • He is known for defeating:
  • Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (AD 1526)
  • Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at battle of Khanwa
  • Medini Rai of Chenderi at Battle of Chanderi (AD 1528)
  • Mahmud Lodi at Battle of Ghagra (AD 1529)
  • Babur wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turkish language
  • The first Mughal emperor declared Jehad and adopted the title Ghazi
  • Babur died in 1530 and was buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). Late, his body was taken to Bagh-e-Babun (Kabul)

Monuments created by the Mughal Emperor Babur.

  • Babri Masjid,
  • Jama Masjid,
  • Panipat Mosque
  • and Kabuli Bagh Mosque 


2. Humayun (AD 1530-1556)


Second Mughal emperor Humayun


  • Babur’s son, Humayun, built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital
  • Humayun fought two battles with Sher Shah Suri and was ultimately deafeated:
    • Battle of Chausa (AD 1539)
    • Battle of Kannauj (AD 1540)
  • The second great Mughal emperor passed 15 years in exile and again invaded India in 1555 with the help of his officer Bairam Khan
  • Humayun died in AD 1556 falling from the stairs of his library building
  • Humayun-nama was written by his half-sister Gulbadan Begum

Buildings and Structures Built by Humayun:

  1. A palace in Agra,
  2. Another palace in Gwalior,
  3. A mosque in Kachhpura, UP,
  4. The Humayun Gate and others of Purana Qila, Delhi,
  5. Din-Panah in Delhi, and
  6. Gyarah Sidhi (an 11 stepped observatory) in Agra.

Buildings and Structures Built by Humayun, that still exist:

  1. A mosque in Kachhpura, UP,
  2. The Humayun Gate and others of Purana Qila, Delhi,
  3. Din-Panah in Delhi, and
  4. Gyarah Sidhi (an 11 stepped observatory) in Agra.


3. Akbar (AD 1556-1605)


Third Mughal emperor Akbar


  • Humayun’s officer Bairam Khan crowned 13-year-old Akbar as the third Mughal emperor
  • He defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (AD 1556) with the help of Bairam Khan
  • Akbar conquered:
  • Malwa (AD 1561) after defeating Baz Bahadur followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati)
  • Chittor (AD 1568)
  • Ranthambhor and Kalinjar (AD 1569)
  • Gujarat (AD 1672)
  • Mewar (AD 1576) in the Battle of Haldighati after defeating Rana Pratap
  • Kashmir (AD 1586)
  • Sindh (AD 1593)
  • Asirgarh (AD 1603)
  • Buland Darwaza was contructed at Fatehpur Sikri after Akbar’s victory over Gujarat in AD 1572
  • Akbar discouraged the practice of Sati and encouraged widow remarriage
  • Akbar was married to Harkha Bai, daughter of Rajpur ruler Bharmal
  • Ralph Fitch was the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s court in AD 1585
  • The third Mughal emperor introduced a land revenue system called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti system, through his finance minister Raja Todar Mal, wherein the classification of land and fixation of rent was introduced
  • He also introduced the Mansabdari System or the rank-holder system to organise the nobility and army
  • The Navratnas or the nine famous intellectuals of Akbar’s court were Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh, and Fakir Aziao-Din

What monuments built by Akbar ?


  1. Agra Fort
  2. Ajmer Fort
  3. Allahabad Fort
  4. Lahore Fort
  5. Sikandra Fort


  • Agra
  • Fatehpur and Sikri
  • Sikandra


  • Buland Darwaza
  • Tomb of Akbar the great
  • Tomb of Hazrat Sheikh Salim Chisti


4. Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)


Fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir


  • Akbar’s son Jahangir executed the fifth Sikh Guru, Arjun Dev
  • His greatest political failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in AD 1622
  • The fourth Mughal emperor Mehr-un-Nisa in AD 1611 and conferred the titles of Nur Jahan on her
  • Jahangir established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for those who sought royal justice
  • Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court
  • A few famous painters in Jahangir’s court were Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur, and Bishandas

What monuments built by jahangir ?





5. Shah Jahan (AD 1628-1658)


Fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan


  • Jahangir’s son, Shah Jahan annexed Ahmednagar while Bijapur and Golconda accepted him as their overlord
  • Shah Jahan secured Kandahar in AD 1639
  • Shah Jahan’s court was visited by two Frenchmen Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci
  • Apart from the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan also built the Moti Mahal in Agra, and the Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi
  • Shah Jahan’s reign is considered the Golden Age of the Mughal empire

What monuments built by Shah Jahan ?

  • Taj mahal in Agra
  • Red fort in Delhi NCR
  • Agra fort :It is the former imperial residence of the Mughal Dynasty located in Agra, India. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage site and is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal
  • Jamah masjid in Agra
  • Wazir Khan mosque : it is in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work.
  • Moti masjid in UP


6. Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)


Sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb


  • Shah Jahan’s son and the last seriously notable Mughal emperor Aurangzeb secured the Mughal throne after a brutal war of succession with his brothers Dara, Shuja and Murad
  • Aurangzeb issued a Royal Firman against Sati (in AD 1664 or 1666) and also gave a death penalty to those forcing widows to be burnt
  • He was called Darvesh or a Zinda Pir
  • He faced several rebellions during his rule, namely from the Jat Peasantry at Mathura, the Satnami Peasantry in Punjab, and the Bundelas in Bundelkhand
  • The annexation of Marwar in AD 1658 led to a serious rift between Rajput and Mughals after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh
  • Aurangzen conquered Bijapur (AD 1686) and Golconda (AD 1687) and re-imposed Jaziya in AD 1679
  • The Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east
  • Aurangzeb executed the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur in AD 1675
  • Aurangzeb built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangbad, Moti Mahal within Red Fort at Delhi, and the Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore

What monuments built by Shah Jahan ?

  • Moti Masjid or
  • Pearl Mosque in the complex of Red Fort in Delhi.
  • Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.
  • Gyanvapi Mosque
  • Jamia Masjid in Srinagar is nevertheless the biggest in Kashmir.

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